The major types of cancer are carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia. .
One in two men and one in three women will be diagnosed with invasive cancer at some point in their life. This is why it is really important to know more about what cancer is, what it is, and how it is treated. At its simplest, cancer or cancer cells are cells that have lost the ability to obey the normal control that the body has over all cells.
In our body we have billions and billions of cells and they have different functions. It's a very complicated process, an incredibly phenomenal control, and when something goes wrong and that control is lost and especially cells escape the normal control mechanisms and they keep growing and they can spread, that's what we call cancer. When these cells grow and divide, they clump together or clump and that's what we would call a tumor and then they can get smart and then spread to other places and that's what we call metastasis.
Cancer actually can occur anywhere in the body because there are cells all over the body. In women, one of the most common types of cancer, of course, is breast cancer. In men, prostate cancer, and lung cancer and colon cancer in both men and women, are common types of cancer that your breast cancer is the same as the person sitting next to you who may have breast cancer, and therefore you can have a customized treatment plan that is tailored to you as an individual and targeted to your specific cancer type.
Once the cancer diagnosis is made, of course, the next obvious question is what do you do. There are several things that are really relevant to the stage of the cancer, i.e. information about where the cancer is.
They say it is a certain type of cancer, how much cancer is there? Has it spread? Is it in lymph nodes? Has it spread to other organs in the body? Cancer treatment is actually very complex and one reason for this is that cancer is a constellation of over 200 different diseases. They share some common characteristics, but they are all very different. In addition, the cancer itself is not homogeneous.
There can be three or four or five or six different slight variations in the cancer cells. People ask why, why is my cancer not going away, it has shrunk by seventy percent. What's wrong with the other thirty percent? probably a different subspecies of this cancer that requires a different type of treatment.
Primary methods of treating cancer or surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Surgery is when you literally remove the cancer. You make a cut, you find the cancer and you cut it off Radiation is actually what we call photons, the same thing you use to do an X-ray to treat a cancer focus.
Chemotherapy uses a drug or chemical taken either orally as a pill or through an IV into the vein that targets the cells that divide faster. Diagnosing cancer can be a scary thing. The good news is that today is probably the most exciting time in history when it comes to treating cancer, ions that didn't exist a few months ago certainly didn't exist a few years ago.
Just like the ability to genomically profile a tumor and take that individualized fingerprint of that cancer, it can lead us to tailor treatment in very specific ways. If we learn genetic abnormalities in individual cancers, we will be able to combat these abnormalities more effectively for the individual cancer, not only improving the outcome for the patients compared to the cancer, but also hopefully leading to fewer side effects as the Hopefully targets will be in normal tissue and more in the cancer itself. New drugs have now been developed to teach the immune system to see cancer cells for what they are, so that the immune system can take over the job of killing those cells.
We discovered a key interaction in the interaction of cancer cells and immune cells, and by influencing that interaction, we learned the immune cell to be smarter and see the cancer cell for what it is and get rid of it. In cancer treatment centers of America cawe has a very robust, integrative oncology program. Integrative Oncology takes these conventional oncology treatments and integrates them with therapies such as acupuncture, naturopathy, chiropractic, nutrition in order to combine them and create the most appropriate treatment plan for each patient at the time.
If your symptoms and side effects control, your nutritional status and your immune system as well as your energy levels during the treatment, you can fight the cancer better and endure the course of treatment. Cancer Treatment Centers of America has all resources under one roof. All of these team members are really trying to address any type of side effect or symptom you may have before they occur.
If we can keep your body strong, if we can keep your hope up and make you feel emotionally strong, and if we can keep your immune system in good shape, a place where you will tolerate treatment much better. No matter what cancer you have, this is a person who has a life and family and friends, etc. My goal as an oncologist is not only to get rid of the cancer, but for you to lead a normal life again.
I've been an oncologist for over 30 years now and the treatment options are the best I've seen. You are more effective with fewer side effects and faster recovery so you can live your normal life as long as you can, we've never had better chances than today.
Cancer cells grow and divide at an abnormally rapid rate, are poorly differentiated, and have abnormal membranes, cytoskeletal proteins, and morphology. The abnormality in cells can be progressive with a slow transition from normal cells to benign tumors to malignant tumors.4 2016 .
Most of the cells in the human body go about their daily work in a fairly decent manner. Let's say I have a cell here. This could perhaps be a skin cell, or really any cell in any tissue in the body.
As they grow or replace dead cells, the cells go through mitosis and replicate themselves, making perfect copies of each other. And then maybe those two will go through mitosis, and when they realize that there will be a little crowded cells in my neighborhood. They'll realize that and say you know I stop growing a little bit.
This is called contact inhibition. And so they just start to grow little flaw, and he says you know what, gee, something is a little bit right with me. I, the cell, recognize this in me, and the cells will actually kill each other.
They are so good by cell citizens to make room for other healthy cells. He even kills himself when he realizes that something is wrong with him. There is actually a cellular mechanism that does this called apoptosis.
And I want to make this very clear. This is not some kind of external influence on the cell. The cell itself recognizes that it is somehow damaged and simply destroys itself, i.e. apoptosis.
So this is the normal circumstance even if there is a mutation. And just to give you an idea, even if mutations are relatively rare. And I don't know how often mutations occur, suspect that it has different frequencies in different tissue types.
There are on the order of 100 billion. Let me do it in a different color. There are on the order of 100 billion new cells in the human body every day.
So even if there is just one mutation, it happens 1 in a million times, you're still dealing with about 100,000 mutations, and maybe most of the mutations are just a few little random things that don't really make a big difference. But if the mutations are a bit more severe here the cell will recognize it and self-destruct. And I want to be very clear here.
I am talking about the cells of the body, or most of the body. These could be the cells in my eye, or the cells in my brain, or the cells on my leg. These are not my germ cells.
So, even if the cell survives, these mutations will not be passed on to my offspring. This is a very different discussion when we talk about meiosis. These are all cells in my body and they are replicating, and we addressed this with mitosis.
So all of the mutations here either do nothing, or the cells could fail a little, or the cells could hurt themselves or hurt me, but they won't affect My offspring. And I want to be very clear about that. Well you say, hey, Sal, 100 billion new cells a day? That must mean every cell in my body has formed, well, that just gives you an idea of how many cells we have.
We actually have on the order of, and you know, it's obviously not an exact number, but actually there are on the order of 100 trillion cells in the human body. And if you look at it that way, they say on average a thousandth of your cells replicate every day, but in fact some cells don't replicate that often at all, and some cells replicate a lot more often. Just to make a little side note here, this gives you what I believe recognition of the complexity of the human body means that we think of our own world economy and society as so complex that it is made up of 6 billion people.
We are made up of 100 trillion cells. Let me translate 100 trillion into billions. 100 trillion can be rewritten into 100,000 billion cells.
And each of those 100,000 billion cells is so huge - I know I shouldn't use the word huge - but they are in and of themselves these complex ecosystems with their cores. And we're going to talk about all of the different organelles that they have, and we were talking about cellular replication, DN replication, and how the cell replicates. So these things are not kidding and they have all these complex membranes that hold things in.
They are creatures to themselves, but they live in this complex environment or society that each of us is a side note just to understand how big and complex we are. But you can imagine, and that's how I got away with this tangent, if we're making on the order of 100 billion new cells every day, you'll have a lot of mutations, and maybe some of the mutations, you know, I said some of them do nothing. With some of them, the cell recognizes that the cell is just going to be a kind of dead weight, so the cell eliminates itself.
But every now and then there are mutations where the cell does not eliminate itself and the cell also deforms. So if you have that, let's say I have a cell here. I have a cell and it has a mutation.
I'll do that mutation with a little x right here. It's in his DNA. So maybe it has a few mu one of the mutations prevents her from undergoing apoptosis or self-destructing, and maybe one of the mutations makes her a bit faster than her neighbors.
So this cell makes a lot of copies of itself through mitosis, or a ton of copies of itself. And this type of cell body that is essentially defective, they all come from an original cell that kept duplicating itself and then duplicating it but all of these are defective cells. If you were to compare them to the tissue around them, it would look abnormal in some way.
Maybe it wouldn't work properly. This is known as a neoplasm. Well, a lot of neoplasms don't have to form a body like this one.
Sometimes they somehow circulate in the body, but most of the time they form these kind of large lumps. And when they get big enough, they are noticeable. And then we call it a tumor.
So if this is actually a clump of differentiated tissue, this is definitely what is called a tumor, what is abnormal. So the term n eoplasm and tumor are often used interchangeably. Tumor is the word we use more often in our everyday vocabulary.
Now when that lump reaches a certain size, it's just there, it's not really doing anything dangerous, it's not replicating out of control. I guess it doesn't replicate much faster than its neighboring cells and it just hangs around, maybe grows a bit, but doesn't damage our environment in any significant way, we call this a benign tumor or a benign neoplasm. And benign means essentially harmless.
Benign tumor. That means that's good. This is what you want to hear.
If you have a lump - God forbid you have a lump one way or the other - but if so, and it's a benign one Is tumor, it means that this knot is good to stay, no damage done. But if those DNA mutations, and maybe some of them, are benign, but maybe one of the benign mutations has another mutation in it that is starting to grow like crazy. And not only is it growing like crazy, but it becomes invasive.
And invasive means that you don't care what happens around it. It just wants to infiltrate everything. So let's assume the guy is growing like crazy.
Let me do it a different color. And it's starting to infiltrate other tissues, so it's invasive. So great growth, it's invasive.
So he doesn't care what is going on. He's suddenly turned into some kind of cell psychopath. And worse, his offspring are no longer just one cell.
It duplicates and just passes on that kind of broken genetic information that it wants to replicate. And then maybe there could be more and more things that break down in his offspring, I think, or the DNA that comes out of his replicas. And actually that's a good chance because the same pieces of his DNA that broke down, some of the DNA that broke down in this guy, some of the mutations might actually have violated the DNA replication scheme, making mutations more common.
So more common mutations the mutations appear that allow these cells to break off and then migrate to other parts of the body. And then those parts of the body start taking over all cells and start taking over all cells one of the hardest words I can say, something is wrong with my brain - but the cell has metastasized. You may have heard the word metastasis, and that's just the idea that these amok cells can suddenly travel to different parts of the body, and I think you know what we call these cells.
These cells that don't respect their cellular neighborhood. You grow like crazy. You do not experience this contact inhibition.
They are invasive. They're starting to displace other cells and take over resources, and they mutate very quickly because they have all of these genetic abnormalities, and at some point they could even break out and infiltrate other parts of the body. These are cancers or cancer cells credit for that why this is so hard.
Cancer is so hard to quote, not to quote, to cure. Because it's really not just a disease; cancer is a whole class of mutations where cells begin to show this rapid invasive growth and metastasis. So you could look at one type of cancer and say, hey, let's target the mutation that makes the cells look like this, and you can do it to turn some of them off.
Let me do that in that color. Maybe you can turn this guy off, that guy, that guy but because their DNA replication system might be broken in some way, they keep mutating, at some point you have a version that no method can knock out. And then you have this new form of cancer, and then this new form of cancer is even harder to kill.
So you can imagine that cancer is one type of cancer, an endless struggle. And you have to attack the general, me behind it. Chemotherapy and radiation, all those kinds of things.
They are trying to attack things that are growing fast because that is the kind of common theme behind all cancers. And we could make a whole playlist about what cancer is and how people attack, but at least I wanted to show you in this article that cancer is really just a by-product of defective mitosis, or more precisely, defective DNA replication. That we have all these cells that replicate on the order of 100 billion every day and every day something breaks every now and then.
Usually when they break, either nothing happens or the cell kills itself. But every now and then the cells replicate even though they are broken. And sometimes they start replicating like crazy.
They really don't do any harm, it's benign. But if they start replicating like crazy, claiming excess resources, and spreading throughout the body, you have cancer. Hopefully you found this interesting.
You know a fair bit of the science that deals with what is probably one of the worst diseases we can deal with as living things. I mean, obviously we're not the only people who can get cancer. Even plants have cancer.
Cancer is deadly disease which is caused due to uncontrolled growth of the cells and forms from the extra mass tissue known as tumour. The loss of apoptotic nature by the cells in their metabolic pathway leads to cancer.
One in two men and one in three women are diagnosed with cancer. But despite this huge number, most people don't know what that really means. At the simplest level, cancer or cancer cells are cells that have the ability to follow normal controls that the body exerts on all cells.
In our body we have billions and billions of cells and they have different functions. It's a very complicated process under incredibly phenomenal control and when something goes wrong and that control is lost and certain cells escape normal control mechanisms and they can keep growing and spreading. We call that cancer.
Together we would call these cells a tumor. Cancer, in particular, is a malignant tumor and we call it malignant because not only can it invade neighboring organs, but unfortunately it can also spread to other tissues, which can be life-threatening. Cancer can actually occur anywhere in the body because there are cells all over the body.
In women, of course, breast cancer and prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers. And lung cancer and colon cancer are common cancers in both men and women. It is important to understand that the cancer that occurs in one individual is very different from the cancer that occurs in another, just as these individuals are different.
So a lung tumor in one person will be very different from a lung tumor in another person. Of course, once the diagnosis of cancer is made, the next obvious question is what you do. There are several things that are really relevant.
The stage of the cancer, which gives information about where the cancer is located. They say it's a special type of cancer. How Much Cancer Is There? Has it spread? Is it in lymph nodes? Has it spread to other organs in the body? Cancer treatment is actually very complex and that is also because cancer is that constellation of over two hundred different diseases.
They have common characteristics, but they are all very different. In addition, the cancer itself is not homogeneous. There can be three or four or five or six different slight variations in the cancer cells that are present.
People ask why? Why is my cancer not going away? It's shrunk by seventy percent. What's wrong with the other thirty percent? Well, it's probably a different subtype of this cancer that requires a different type of treatment. There are three primary therapies for cancer.
Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Surgeryworks by direct removal of the tumor. Radiation therapy provides X-rays to kill individual cells, and chemotherapy provides chemicals that can kill those individual cells.
But they have side effects. The best therapies we can produce are really the result of optimizing the amount of tumor we can kill with each treatment and minimizing the damage we cause to the normal cells that would be affected by that Treatment Centers of America we have a very robust integrative oncology program. Integrative oncology takes these conventional oncological treatments and integrates them with therapies such as acupuncture, naturopathy, chiropractic and nutrition.
Bring them together and create the most appropriate treatment plan for that individual patient at the time. Cancer Treatment Centers of America has invested in a model in which all of the effects of cancer and its therapy are aggressively treated and managed. It is not enough to kill the cancer if we don't treat the pain, fatigue, depression, or anxiety that accompany a diagnosis of cancer.
Diagnosing cancer can be daunting. The good news is that today is probably the most exciting time in cancer treatment history. Options that didn't exist a few months ago certainly didn't exist a few years ago, such as the ability to genomic profile a tumor and take that cancer's individual fingerprint, can lead us to tailor the treatment to be very specific Tailored wisely In the future, many more patients with a number of different tumor types may benefit from advances in precision medicine.
There are very hopeful opportunities that are available to us as clinicians to improve the lives of patients, and it is therefore just as important for patients to know this so that they have and seize these hopeful opportunities.
What are the different types of cancer?
When we think of head and neck cancer, we really mean diseases or cancers that occur primarily above the collarbones but do not involve the brain. Brain tumors are really a different entity. So these are cancers that start in the mouth or throat.
We often see patients with cancers that originate in the thyroid or salivary glands. Essentially the part of the body that is responsible for speaking, swallowing, communicating. And most of these cancers start on the surface, called the lining of these areas, the lining of the mouth or throat, or the tongue.
The primary types of head and neck cancer that we really classify into three main categories are based on their tissue origins. and I would say this is 90 percent of the cancers we see that we call squamous cell carcinomas. These are cancers that start in the lining of the digestive tract of the upper air, i.e. in the mouth, throat, upper esophagus, the larynx or larynx, the upper windpipe.
These are all lined by a surface of the mucous membrane that, when cancer develops, we call squamous cell carcinoma. Then the second most common are thyroid cancers, they come from the thyroid gland. These fall into several categories, either medullary thyroid cancer or what we generally call differentiated thyroid cancer.
And the third category that we see most often are cancers that start from the salivary glands or salivary gland cancer diagnosis and when a patient is diagnosed with head and neck cancer the first thing they need to think about is what their healing potential and their potential for organ preservation. Let me go into both of them. In relation to this disease, most of the patients we see have what is known as local regional disease.
And by that we mean that you have a tumor that has often spread to lymph nodes, but has not spread widely, so there are no metastases to other organs such as the lungs, bones or liver, which is what we are actually talking about Diseases that are limited to the head and neck area. And that is important because we are considering these patients for curative therapy. We are going to try to cure this disease, and it will be obvious to both the patient and to the patient The doctor is incredibly important.
And the first thing we think about when we see a patient with head and neck cancer is that patient who can be cured of their disease. Obviously, if they are, that will lead us down a path of what we can do to heal this patient. And if they are not, that leads us on a completely different therapeutic path.
Then we start to think about well, as you can imagine, because the organs of the head and neck are so important to daily interaction, to what really defines us as humans - our ability to talk to one another, our ability to be one Eating meals, eating normally, our facial expressions. So much of what we do as humans, like humans, happens above the collarbones. This is why maintaining function becomes so important in patients with head and neck cancer, especially in those we are trying to cure.
The next question we ask ourselves is how can we do this? cure this patient and bring him back to normal. And these are exactly the questions patients should be asking their doctors. Do I have, can I be cured from it, and if I can be cured from it, how can I continue my normal activity once? I'm done with therapy? And then we need to think about what other health professionals will be important in caring for that person.
Since many patients have this, the mouth is irradiated or the oral cavity is involved. In the radiation field, dentists and dentists become incredibly important to ongoing care. As you can imagine, patients will have difficulty swallowing during therapy.
This is how nutrition and speech and swallowing therapists become incredibly important. To get back to the idea that many of our patients are presenting with a local regional disease, the main treatment option really focuses on curing these patients. And when we talk about therapy with curative intent, we are really talking about three main modalities - surgery, radiation therapy, and medical oncology or chemotherapy.
And what we've really been doing over the past few decades is how to integrate these three modalities to get the best possible results. For some patients, it will be an operation beforehand, possibly followed by radiation, for example, or chemotherapy and radiation. For other patients, and for many patients, we would like to consider a non-surgical approach to maintain function and preserve the organ.
And I think it's very important to ask about clinical studies. Because in this way we are not only advancing the field, but honestly, clinical studies offer patients new therapies, new approaches for patients, who very often per I think it is very important to ask which clinical studies are used for my disease Are available What should my supervisors think about, which support team do I need? And it's good to think proactively about it and set that up. How much help will I need during this treatment and who will? be available to provide this assistance.
When we think about where the research is going and the latest research advances in head and neck cancer, I really like to group them into two categories. The first is what we learn about cancer and our better understanding of the biology of that disease. And the second concerns the new therapies, what treatments are coming online, or coming online soon, that we can use to improve outcomes for patients.
But we clearly learn that there are two different types of squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck. One is related to a virus called human papillomavirus or HPV, the same virus that causes cervical cancer and several other cancers. And we understand that HPV-related head and neck cancer is very different from non-HPV-related head and neck cancer.
And by that I mean that the patients tend to be younger, they are often non-smokers and non-drinkers. Because we as practitioners learn that patients do not have to smoke to be at risk of head and neck cancer. And with a non-smoker, we still have to worry if someone complains of symptoms in the head and neck area, pain, a lump in the neck.
We have to be very concerned and think about whether this is possibly a viral cancer, even in a non-smoker and patients should of course also be aware of that. HPV positive head and neck cancer behaves differently. And then HPV negative cancer that often related to tobacco exposure, occurs in patients who are slightly older.
It has a different representation in relation to the place where it occurs, it often occurs in the speech box or in the oral cavity. We have also begun to understand that there are mutations and changes that we can specifically target. For example, there are patients who have mutations in certain signaling pathways or in certain genes for whom we now have drugs specifically targeting those genes.
We have also begun to understand that immunotherapy for this disease can be used for both HPV positive people as well as non-HPV-related head and neck cancer. In fact, we now have randomized data on an immunotherapeutic drug compared to standard treatment in patients with metastatic disease, showing a dramatic improvement in immunotherapy. And really, this is just the first step, the first drug to have shown this kind of effectiveness.
We're going to see many, many more in the next few months and a veritable explosion for immunotherapy for head and neck cancer in the next few years. For head and neck cancer, there are some particularly relevant websites that are worth checking out. Cancer.
Net is a website developed by the American Society of Clinical Oncology specifically for patients to answer patient questions, patient needs, questions and needs of caregivers. And it's really patient focused. Cancer.
Net would certainly be one of them.
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers in existence. It kills quickly and causes multiple painful and dangerous symptoms including stomach pain, biliary obstruction, bleeding, ascites, and more.
Cancer cells can ignore the signals that tell them to self destruct. So they don't undergo apoptosis when they should. Scientists call this making cells immortal. .
Cancerians are born between June 21 and July 22 and are intense, incredibly charismatic and attractive, but also possessive and moody. They can turn on a sixpence, and you might wonder how many people really live inside them! Ruled by the Moon, they are passionate, creative, secretive, intuitive, and caring. .
When cancer spreads, it's called metastasis. In metastasis, cancer cells break away from where they first formed, travel through the blood or lymph system, and form new tumors in other parts of the body. Cancer can spread to almost anywhere in the body. But it commonly moves into your bones, liver, or lungs.
The fact that only 510% of all cancer cases are due to genetic defects and that the remaining 9095% are due to environment and lifestyle provides major opportunities for preventing cancer.
In the United States, primary liver cancer has become the fastest growing cancer in terms of incidence, in both men and women.
When you hear the word Cancer most people immediately think it's a death sentence, but there are so many new developments in Cancer treatments. Patients are living longer and having a better quality of life. .
Knowledge is power, and it can help you deal with this disease. Cancer is a disease that occurs when cells in the body begin to divide at a faster rate than the body requires. These rapidly dividing cells grow into a lump that is known as a tumor. The tumor can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Cancer is a disease that occurs when cells in the body begin to divide at a faster rate than the body requires. These rapidly dividing cells grow into a lump that is known as a tumor.
Credit: National Cancer Institute / Univ. of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute The Definition of Cancer Cancer is a disease in which some of the body’s cells grow uncontrollably and spread to other parts of the body. Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells.