A composite is something made up of complicated and related parts. A composite photograph of your family might have your eyes, your sister's nose, your dad's mouth, and your mother's chin. Composite comes from the Latin for 'putting together.' It can be used as a noun or adjective.
An important class of materials are composites after composites. We mean an artificial multiphase material. We have previously learned about multiphase material like steel, in which ferrite and cementite are present, but which we will take into account because ferrite and cementite both form during the natural cooling of steel from the austenite phase.
By this we mean that the two phases existed separately and were then joined together to form this composite of two phases; one is generally a continuous phase called a matrix and another is a discontinuous phase called reinforcement, although in some composites, such as sandwich composites, both phases can be discontinuous. Composites can now be classified based on the nature of the matrix. So we have polymer matrix composite metal matrix composite and ceramic matrix composite depending on whether the matrix is a polymer or a metal or a ceramic.
An example of a polymer is a matrix composite material, for example in GRP, which is short for glass fiber reinforced plastic, glass fiber reinforced plastic. So, in this one in a plastic; for example, polypropylene or epoxy glass fibers are used. So that's great and for the reinforcement.
So, glass fiber reinforced plastic or we have CFRP carbon fiber reinforced plastics often in sports equipment like rackets and all of them are sold as carbon rackets; They are actually carbon fiber reinforced plastic. Similarly, many commercial products are known to be made of fiberglass. But fiberglass is actually fiberglass reinforced plastic, then you have a metal matrix composite.
An example of a metal matrix composite can take aluminum as a matrix and reinforce with its own oxide Al 2 O 3. So Al 2 O 3 is the alumina that will be re-strengthened and aluminum is the matrix Ceramic matrix composite in the matrix will be ceramic. So let's take ceramic Al 2 O 3 aluminum oxide as a matrix that can be reinforced with silicon carbide fibers.
Silicon carbide fibers can be used as reinforcement for alumina ceramics. It is therefore a ceramic matrix composite. Here I will show you a classification scheme of composite materials based on shape and distribution form and distribution of the reinforced reinforcement phase.
The reinforcing phase can therefore be particles. So we say a particle or particle composite or it can be a fiber we call it a fiber composite the fiber the reinforcing fiber can either be discontinuous or short fibers or can be continuous and long fibers that are aligned the discontinuous short fiber can also be aligned or could be random . Depending on the orientation and shape of the reinforcement, we can divide the composite into different classes, as shown here.
A composite is a material that is made by combining two or more substances that have different physical properties.
Examples of Composite Materials
Almost anything can now be made from composites. So things in your home; Bathtubs, whirlpools, sinks, aircraft parts. I could spend hours talking about things that are made of composite materials.
Composites are two or more materials that are different that are combined together to make a product stronger than it would be on its own. There are some basic things it takes to make a composite. You have to have a fiber and we work with carbon fiber, kevlar fiber and glass fiber.
Then you need a matrix system, which is the resin. We work with epoxy resins and it's just a two part system. It has the resin and hardener that solidify it when mixed together.
You gain a lot of practical experience. That makes them better engineers. You will take many technical courses and go through technical programs.
You will have the foundation of how to actually build things and that will reinforce what you are learning here. One of the things I like most about our program is our philosophy of having fun teaching students how to build all of these different parts and how to operate this advanced equipment. I have a guitar here.
We can teach a student how to build a guitar while teaching them the techniques to make an F-35 part, for example. Students can get into any of the industries that use composites. We have students building airplane parts, F-35 parts, carbon fiber prosthetics.
There's a lot of outdoor industry here. There's a lot of aerospace industry here. They hire a lot of students from this program to work in these companies We meet with industry twice a year to make sure we have the equipment and supplies to train students to keep up to date.
When you look at the industry, they're looking for people who won't just learn how to assemble this thing, whether it's an infusion, or a resin transfer mold. is a prepreg. But the main thing is why.
Why does it do what it does, type something, because then you can understand when it is time to do the next thing. Composite has two phases. Well, a composite worker should also have two phases.
The figuring out and the one who touches it and does it. These are the best students. In high school, I attended several simultaneous enrollment classes and I had to take them in advanced learning centers.
I didn't like design. So I decided to go into production and my father had worked with plastics and composites. So I did an internship with him at his company and found that I love composites and everything goes towards that.
So I knew I was guaranteed a job in Composites and then I just fell in love with every class I attend. When I finished high school, because of my education, I didn't really have anything to look forward to, like soccer or basketball. So I decided to join the Job Corps program and had a nice little college program at Davis Tech here.
So I joined the Manufacturing Program, which pretty much spans the core industries, including composites. As soon as I got into composites, I loved it. You have the ability to build things you wanted and the nice thing about Weber himself is the courses are small, so there are two of us in one of these classes, so instead of taking exams, she has now helped us meet some of our wants and needs that we want to build so I could actually make my own sole shoe.
It has Weber State W on it, so it will print Weber State W every time I go. But I'll also have the option of building the rest of the shoe out of composite materials too. Lie down and see if I can make the straps and then the midsole and sole myself.
That's really cool. As a woman in the male dominated industry, it has been tough because girls adapt really well to their surroundings, but with engineering in a male dominated field, it's intimidating. Mainly because most teachers are male too.
So I want everyone, or at least safe women, to know that you are just as smart as them. It's much better to work together because you look at things differently. I've learned a lot more than I thought because of the people around me.
Technical training is a great way to advance your career faster. It only took me about a year to make composites and I'm ready to go into industry, make some money for myself, and then go to college after that. I think it would be a good stepping stone to improve yourself.
A composite material is a combination of two materials with different physical and chemical properties. When they are combined they create a material which is specialised to do a certain job, for instance to become stronger, lighter or resistant to electricity. They can also improve strength and stiffness.
In math, composite numbers can be defined as the whole numbers that have more than two factors. Whole numbers that are not prime are composite numbers, because they are divisible by more than two numbers.
So I have a slip of paper. Let's go over these lab values. I actually wrote down a number of values that we're going to pretend to be my labs for a moment.
And you can see the area and the units next to it. So let's go through it bit by bit. And actually, as I do, I'm actually showing you some shorthand techniques so that if you ever see this in the future, you can understand what it is referring to.
So that's a short form that people made up. It's not necessarily something I made up. I've learned from people before me.
But it is used fairly uniformly not just in the US but in most of the world. So by looking at these labs, you can quickly transcribe them. Imagine you need to quickly put it on a piece of paper and move on.
This is how you would do it. So you would draw such a little line diagram. And on the far left you would put the number 5.
And that refers to the first row, the white blood cell row. And we know that the value is 5,000, that's what the 5 represents. And it goes without saying that this number is given in thousands of cells per milliliter.
So when you see a 5, you know we're talking about thousands of cells per milliliter. And the next question is, well, what are these types of cells if you were actually looking at them? We know they are white blood cells. But what type it is exactly is in the six rows below.
So these six rows will show you the breakdown of that number. That's why it's percent. And so the 5,000 cells disintegrate into segmented neutrophils.
I write that as S with 61. And there are 3% bands of bands. Lymphocytes are 29%.
And then we have monocytes at 4%, basophils at 1%, and eosinophils at 2%. So those percentages for the different types of white blood cells add up to 100, right? So let's check that again. We have 7 and 29 is 36 and 3 is 39.
Yes, 100%. So you can quickly see the different types of white blood cells floating around your body and what those numbers represent. So then the next two numbers, hemoglobin and hematocrit, come at the top and bottom of this bar graph, and again, when you see those numbers like that , I could take a look at this and immediately see that this is the red blood cell content.
These two numbers both reflect the level of red blood cells in the blood. And then the last cell on this page is the platelet count. And 227 is 227,000 cells per microliter.
So before we talked about milliliters for white blood cells. But when it comes to platelets, we're now talking about microliters. And actually I put 'cells' in quotes because we know they aren't actually cells.
These are tiny fragments of cells that are platelets, like many platelet cell fragments floating around in a microliter of blood. So this is the first block of data. So that's all of this information, very quickly summarized in this line diagram.
Now let's get to chemistry. And so if someone has a Che. ordered? m 7, then that would be the first seven of them.
And if you order a Chem 10, that would be all 10 of them. So that's how you'd draw that as a bar chart, the Chem 10, the last three, go in here. So comes the sodium in the top left.
And below that is the 4.3 for potassium. And just systematically all the way through, so for chloride, it's 103.
Bicarbonate goes right below it as 22. And then the creatinine goes into that cell, 0.8.
And then the blood urea nitrogen - sometimes they call that the BUN, that's just the first letter of those three - it's 15. And then the fasting glucose is 92. And then the calcium comes in at the top of that little wishbone-shaped bar chart.
That goes right there. The magnesium comes on this side. And the phosphate goes on that side.
So this is Chem 7 above. And Chem 10 would be all of that together. And then we have some liver enzymes downstairs.
And there's a line diagram for that too, a kind of fasting way of drawing it. And it's basically just an x. So on top of the x are two numbers.
You usually write the total bilirubin like this, 1.1. And then you add a slash And then put in the other number there, the direct bilirubin, 0.1, and then on the left side the AST, and on the right side the ALT, and right at the bottom the alkaline phosphatase, 76.
This is how the numbers are broken down And so again, if you ever see any of those stick diagrams and wonder what they refer to, you have now broken the code. You know which number goes where. So if you see this number at 22, for example, you immediately know they are talking about ALT.
So people can quickly graph things. And now I know when people look at labs, the first thing they want to know is, hey, is that good or bad? So they want to look at these values and compare them to the ranges. You mean to say, hey, does this fit within the normal range people expect? So let's talk about it, Le I'm talking about the normal range and what normal means exactly because I know this is the first thing most people will see.
So let me paint what a normal curve would look like. So if you actually took, let's say, all of them, let's say 10,000 - it's not everyone, but let's say a lot of people - 10,000 people and asked them all to tell you their white blood cell counts. They will of course give you a lot of different numbers.
You're probably wondering what you do with this information, but let's say they give you their answer, and let's say you plot everything on a curve and draw a little graph, that's basically what you would find You'd say, OK, most people have one white blood cell - and that's the number of white blood cells. Actually, sorry. That's the number of white blood cells down here.
And of course that is in the thousands. We said thousands per milliliter, thousands of cells per milliliter. And this is the frequency.
This is the number of people. I just write f for the frequency, so you would say, OK, while there are a lot of people in this field here - and actually 95% of the people fall into this middle one Section in this area. So that's definitely the bulk of the people who fit between 4.5 and 10.
And so it is actually when most of these areas are set. They say, OK, where are the majority of the people? And it's usually between those numbers that are in the range. And that also means, when you think about it, that of course there is someone out here and someone up here, right? I mean, by definition, that's going to happen.
You will have 5% of the people in either of these two sides together. So when you see a range, just keep in mind that there is a normal variance, they reminded yourself, that goes above or below that range. But this area usually covers the majority of people.
So when you think about it, when you think about what exactly falls within a normal range, consider some of the things that might make the normal different. For example, let's say I'm checking someone's hematocrit. Let's go yeah, I'm looking at the hematocrit and want to find out if it's normal or not.
If I look at a baby's hematocrit but use an adult range, for example, it would be very, very unusually high - a newborn has a very high hematocrit, so I should really compare it to other newborns. So age is really important to consider. So you want to make sure that the range of values is age appropriate.
You also need to make sure this gender is taken into account. For example, the normal range for hematocrit in men is slightly higher than the normal range for hematocrit in women. So the area is important for the age and also for the gender.
Now different laboratories will also differ. So it's pretty interesting. You can even go online and see what is the normal range for a lot of these things that I have here.
And the numbers will be a little different from what I showed you. So if you go from one lab to another you will get different numbers. In fact, the laboratory technology also counts.
So even within a laboratory, depending on the technology you use to get an answer to something, the range can vary. And that's actually important, especially with things like that. These IUs, which I put down here, stand for units or international units.
And that's specific to a particular type of laboratory assay being performed, and that in turn depends on the exact assay that is being performed, and that will change the range of values you get there. So think about the technique. And finally, look at this situation If so, let's say a person to come for a fasting sugar.
And usually, you are told, just don't eat anything overnight. And don't have breakfast. And come in and get your first blood drawn in the morning, which is a fairly common scenario.
Then you would have normal fasting glucose. And it should be below 100. But let's say you happen to decide to have a small snack in the morning because that's your usual thing.
You have a toast. It may cause your blood sugar to rise. So the glucose result could be OK if someone knows you haven't fasted, really.
They had a small snack. So this situation has changed. So your metabolism will increase this area.
The number below 100 is normal only for fasting glucose. Otherwise, it could be higher. Now imagine a situation where you are taking some medication.
Let's say you're taking a drug that causes your potassium to drop. So you're taking a drug. It causes potassium to leave your kidneys and in the urine.
Your potassium level would then go down. I would expect it to be lower, right? Because you are on your medication. And so some of these areas will change depending on what medications you are taking, what you had for breakfast or not for breakfast that day, what kind of illnesses you have.
So it definitely depends on the situation. So what if you want to look at ranges and values and see if they are in the normal range? Just take into account all of these things that could explain why your number is in this range or not e.
A composite is defined as something made up of multiple parts. An example of a composite is a mixture with many liquids in it. noun.
What are Prime and Composite Numbers? A prime number is a number which has exactly two factors i.e. '1' and number itself. A composite number has more than two factors, which means apart from getting divided by number 1 and itself, it can also be divided by at least one integer or number.
The main composite families encompass organic matrix composites (OMCs), metal matrix composites (MMCs), and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). .
Why use composites? The greatest advantage of composite materials is strength and stiffness combined with lightness. By choosing an appropriate combination of reinforcement and matrix material, manufacturers can produce properties that exactly fit the requirements for a particular structure for a particular purpose. .
Yes, 2 is a prime number. The number 2 is divisible only by 1 and the number itself. For a number to be classified as a prime number, it should have exactly two factors. Since 2 has exactly two factors, i.e. 1 and 2, it is a prime number.
If the number has only two factors, 1 and itself, then it is prime. If the number has more than two factors, then it is composite.