Mars is one of the faster-moving planets, and it can spend from two to seven months in one sign, depending on when and how often it retrogrades. Mars takes around two years to move through the entire zodiac. .
They call me the tornado hunter. When the wind rises and the conditions are right, I get into my car and follow violent storms. 'Crazy' you say? Maybe, but in reality I hunt these sky beasts to learn more about them.
I want to share what I know with you. Tornadoes are rapidly rotating columns of air that form in storms that connect to the ground via a cloud funnel, tear across the earth and pose a great threat to life and property. For this reason, a lot of research is done on these phenomena, but the truth is that we do not yet know a lot about how tornadoes can result in one tornado, but it does not necessarily have to cause another.
But we've learned a lot since people started recording tornadoes, like how to recognize the signs when someone is brewing in the sky. Are you coming with me? Tornadoes start with a thunderstorm, but not just any thunderstorm. These are particularly strong, towering thunderstorms called supercells.
Reaching over 50,000 feet in altitude, they bring high winds, huge hailstones, sometimes floods and large lightning bolts from storms that breed tornadoes, but only when very specific conditions exist, clues that we measure and pay attention to when we're trying to predict a storm. Rising air is the first ingredient needed for a tornado to develop; any storm is created when condensation occurs, the byproducts of clouds. Condensation releases heat and heat becomes the energy that drives huge air currents upwards.
The more condensation and the larger the storm clouds, the stronger these updrafts become. This rising air mass is particularly strong in super cells. When the air rises, it can change direction and move faster.
Finally, when there is a lot of moisture, a huge cloud base develops at the base of the storm, which gives the tornado something to feed on later when the time comes. With all of these things in place, a vortex can form that is surrounded by the storm, forming a wide, tall tube of swirling air that is then drawn upward. We call this a mesocyclone.
Outside, cool, dry, s coloring air begins to wrap itself around the back of this mesocyclone and forms what is known as a rear flank downdraft. This unusual scenario creates a large temperature differential between the air inside the mesocyclone and the air outside, creating a degree of instability that allows a tornado to thrive. Then the lower part of the mesocyclone narrows, increasing wind speed and turning it into a rotating wall of cloud that forms a link between the storm that created it and the earth.
As soon as this tube of spinning clouds hits the ground, it turns into a tornado. Most are small and short-lived, producing winds of 65-110 mph, but others can last over an hour and produce winds of 200 mph. They are beautiful but terrifying, especially when you or your city is in the way.
In this case no one, not even tornado hunters like me, have fun watching. Like everything, but tornadoes also come to an end. When the temperature difference disappears and the conditions become more stable or the moisture in the air dries up, the once violent mother storm loses its momentum and pulls its tornado back inside.
Nevertheless, meteorologists and storm chasers like me will keep an eye out, watch, always watch whether the storm lets go of its long rope again.
They occur every 26, 79 and 100 years, and every 1,000 years or so there is an extra 53rd-year transit.
When is the right time to launch a spaceship from Earth to Mars? The timing is important here: Earth and Mars are constantly moving, and the distance between the two planets is constantly changing. It takes the earth about 365 days to completely orbit the sun. Mars is moving more slowly now.
It takes approximately 687 days for the red planet to reach its own full orbit. And because of these different speeds, sometimes the two planets are closer together and sometimes the two planets are further apart. And every now and then Earth and Mars line up so that the Sun and Mars are on directly opposite sides of the earth.
And at that time - a time known as opposition - Earth and Mars are closer than ever. But how often do oppositions occur? When we know how long it takes each planet to complete its own orbit, we can do something to estimate how many Earth days it would take Earth to complete one full orbit using 365 day orbit, and then using that 687-day orbit to return to Mars orbit. Solving the equation tells us that it takes a little over two years - or roughly every 26 months or so - to get Earth and Mars back in line.
It might look like this As if this were the best time to launch a spacecraft, the distance between the two planets is as small as it can be, this should make for a time and fuel efficient journey. But it's not that simple and we run into some problems quickly. The first is that Mars is moving.
If we were to launch a spaceship traveling in a straight line from Earth to Mars while in opposition, Mars would be long gone by the time it reached Mars' orbit, as it continues its own orbit around the Sun, not just that Earth and Mars orbit the sun. The space probe is also circling. It orbits the sun while on earth because the earth itself orbits the sun.
And after the spaceship has started, the spaceship then also follows its own orbit around the sun by traveling in a straight line, but by adjusting the orbit of the spacecraft. It starts in Earth orbit, and we want to put it into orbit on Mars. And it turns out that the most energy efficient way to do this is by what is called the Hohmann transfer orbit, which is where the spacecraft begins orbit, and we're just adding enough energy to move our spaceship onto what is called a 'transfer orbit', which the spaceship is eventually put into orbit of Mars when the spaceship has traveled 180 degrees around the sun.
The distance traveled by the spaceship will therefore be longer than the direct path between Earth and Mars during opposition. But the goal here is energy efficiency. Rocket fuel is heavy and rocket fuel is expensive, so maximizing energy efficiency with the Hohmann transfer orbit enables a practical and comparatively inexpensive trip to the Red Planet.
This strategy means that when the spacecraft takes off on Earth, it starts on one side of the sun, generates energy, in order to get into a transfer orbit, and then just have to intercept Mars at the mother, so that the spacecraft reaches exactly the opposite side of the Sun And from there we can work backwards to find out where Earth and Mars need to be relative to each other when the spaceship is first launched. We still have to wait for the right alignment of the planets, which happens only once every 26 months, during a narrow period called the launch window when the planets are in the correct position to make this type of travel possible. And if we miss a launch window, then in general we will have to wait another 26 months for the planets to regain correct relative positions before we can begin another launch.
And then, when we want to go on a round trip and return to Earth after we're done on Mars, the whole process repeats itself in reverse order. We cannot just leave Mars whenever we want, because if we follow the Hohmann transfer orbit back to Earth's orbit, it is likely that Earth will not be in the right place in its orbit when we return. So we have to go to a di. waiting start window waiting to start the return journey so that at the end of our journey the earth is waiting for us.
However, planning a trip to Mars is even more complicated. Our model assumed that Earth and Mars are perfectly circular orbits, but that is not entirely true. The orbits of Earth and Mars are not perfect circles, but elliptical or oval.
And Mars' orbit is more elliptical than Earth's orbit, which is closer to a full circle. Because of this, the planets do not always move at a constant speed. And to complicate matters, Earth and Mars don't even orbit on the exact same plane.
The orbit of Mars is nearly two degrees inclined from that of Earth. All of these factors make traveling to Mars a task that requires an incredible amount of planning and precision. But with our knowledge of planetary movements, we can and have made the journey possible with today's technology if the starting window is correct every 26 months.
'Mars is the planet of our desires, actions, energy, passion, war, aggression, sex, and assertion,' astrologer Lisa Stardust tells Refinery29. 'It shows how you take action and argue, and reveals your sexual inclinations,' Stardust continues. 'Mars also depicts how one uses their innate energy to achieve their goals. .Hey guys! Welcome back to Lavendaire, I'm continuing this series of fun self-discovery tools on my channel, so if you missed the first article I was talking about tarot cards and how to use them as a beginner because I'm a beginner. Today I'm super excited to be talking about astrology. Astrology is something I've been dealing with for most of my life, literally since I was a kid, and it's not that I'm an expert on it or anything.
But I was more into astrology and natal chart reading last year than I read Steven Forrest's book The Inner Sky. I've learned a lot about reading the natal chart, a lot about astrology and what it means I have found that I know more about astrology than the average person. So this article is for the average person.
If you are an expert there is no need to look at this. But I just want to explain astrology more deeply than just your sun signs. So get ready for a fun article! First things first, let's be clear: astronomy is the scientific study of celestial bodies, so it is based on facts and research, and astrology is the interpretation of celestial bodies, that is, this is how we interpret what is in the sky.
It's the poetry, it's the art. but it's really cool that everything has a meaning and it's not exactly scientific, but it's more of an art. So what is a natal chart? Your astrological natal chart is basically a snapshot of the sky at the time and place where you were born, where in the world you were born and the exact time, it is the picture of what is in heaven.
It is a kind of map of all the planets, the sun and the moon. So it is very important to be precise about the exact time that you were born because every hour or two your natal chart changes because the sky moves - no, the earth moves - and so moves the snapshot of the sky was born if you can get your exact natal chart r side note: if you are chinese, i know there is a superstition in chinese culture, because of feng shui and all that stuff, never to give your date / time of birth to anyone out there. So I don't want to post my exact natal chart or anything.
But we believe that once someone knows your exact date and time of birth, they will know a lot about your destiny and people can use it against you. So this is something that I personally - because my mom influenced me - personally I would like to keep it a little more secret, so just let you guys know. So how do you get your natal chart read? There are many websites where you can enter this information.
Café Astrology is one, Astro.com is another. And there are also plenty of mobile apps that you can use to check your natal chart.
My favorite astrology app is co-star. This one is very modern and chic and outlines your natal chart and all of the details in a very neat way. So check out these - I'll link them below.
Now let's talk about the original triad, which is your sun, moon, and ascendant. Sometimes people also refer to the ascendant as their 'ascending' sign. These are generally the three most important signs on your natal chart, so you might see other people who are really interested in astrology, they will list all three signs because all three are important in listing more than just your sun sign, your sun sign just hangs from the day you were born, what time of year you were in.
I was born in October so I'm a Libra. BTW, I have this diary in which I made a lot of notes from the astrology book I read so I can refer to it now and then. In general, your sun sign represents your ego, your personality, your self-image.
It's the core of who you are. Your moon sign represents your emotional self. Your moon is your sensitivity, your emotions, your feelings, your mood, your heart.
Sometimes people refer to their moon sign more than their sun sign because your moon is your emotional self and you feel more about that sign. And whatever sign you are in your moon, that is an indication of what makes you happy and what makes you feel fulfilled. Well, I'm a Sagittarius moon and Sagittarius is about adventure and exploration, trying new things, and I can often really relate to that too.
Your ascending or 'ascending' sign is essentially your mask for the world. It's how other people perceive you. Think of it as a first impression.
Other people may see you in a certain way when they first meet you, and then when they get to know you they realize, 'Oh, you really are like a different kind of person.' Others. And just so you know, my rising sign is Gemini.
By the way, in order not to make this article too long, I am not going to go into the details of the meaning of each sign, planet, and all because there are tons of resources online about it. I'm actually going to make simple notes for you to read on my blog post, just quick keywords and notes on each character, planet, or house. After receiving your natal chart, you can write down your sign, moon, and rising sign.
And then you can take a look at the notes I made on my blog post and see what corresponds to each character. One way to understand your original triad sign is to put it in a sentence like this: 'I am a __, with the soul of a __, wear the mask of a __' Depending on your sign, you will find the meaning and the archetype of your sign and just pocket the words. For me for example: I am an artist with the soul of a philosopher who wears the mask of a teacher, because an artist is what a Libra is, the philosopher is an archetype of the Sagittarius moon and the teacher is one of the archetypes for a twin.
I hope this made sense and I hope it helped. So that was the basics. Ready to dive deeper? Let's go! Let's talk about the constituent parts of the natal chart.
As I mentioned earlier, there are 12 signs, you've heard these before - Aries, Scorpio, Libra, Leo - all of these I know they are out of order. And then there are ten planets, and after 'planets'
When NASA wants to control the Mars Rover, it boots up a video game that combines high-tech software, virtual reality, and 3D glasses. This way, researchers can 'walk' on Mars through virtual reality images, marking the waypoints of their path, and uploading the maps they make. .
While the countdown to Mars continues the persistence of mankind starts on July 30th, 2020 the next generation of robotic researchers to the red planet runs to plan the two vehicles will land safely on the artian surface after their long seven-month journey to the red planetonly 40 of the missions that follow maris have been successful and perseverance will have to endure arduous and complicated landing sequences while their creators wait powerlessly for their news of success in pasadenathe Perseverance Rover is the largest booth, the heaviest rover to date to have sent to Mars, heavier than the Curiosity Rover by 100 Kilograms and with that added weight comes a whole slew of new gadgets This isn't a slightly improved version of the Curiosity RoverPerseverance benefits from nearly 10 years of ears of advancement in technology It's packed with fascinating and novel technologies that are a stepping stone for the men The first steps of humanity on the surface of the red planet that is the insane technique of staying power rover, staying power is now hopefully safe on the ground where it will have a long illustrious life on the red planet, we've learned quite a few things from the Curiosity rover which hopefully will help avoid the fights its predecessor experienced We made a full article of the Curiosity Roverwheels fights and how they gradually fall apart on the rough surface of Mars in the end, jbl engineers didn't care about shape memory- Alloy wheels decidedly like the ones we discussed in this article, but just increasing the diameter of the wheels, decreasing their width and increasing their thickness, while incorporating more stable curved threads that resist crack growth better than the sharp-edged threads from Curiosity, they have, too on the re There are no rectangular cut-outs in the printed Morse code that expresses the origins of the rover in the rusty dirt of its new home. There are a whole series of new software upgrades such as the algorithm that determines when the parachute must be opened. In the last mission, the parachute was simply extended When the target speed of 1450 kilometers per hour was reached after most of the hypersonic re-entry speed of 21450 kilometers per hour was drained out of persistence jpl wanted to increase the accuracy of your landing so that this time the slide opens when you find the optimal flight path for the landing site Approaching, she will also scan the surface of the landing site and use these images with her pre-existing map so that the Sky Crane can choose the best landing site with minimal obstacles.
Perseverance's ground navigation systems have also been vastly improved, with its optical sensors storing data in feed in a machine learning algorithm that enables endurance to find its own way through the impassable terrain of Mars, where curiosity had to remain constant y stop and start with the help of its earth-based controllers endurance benefits massively from the improved autonomous flight and driving performance of the Developed in the last decade by the drone and automotive industries As big as Lake Tahoe, you can see the remains of this ancient river bed and delta pouring into what could once have been habitable water. This is where persistence will look for signs of life before we get into all of the devices we use to do it. Let's look at how endurance willpower the endurance rover has the same radio izotop thermal generator as the curiosity rover RTGs, which converts the heat from the natural decay of radioisotopes into electricity.
It uses a simple principle called the Bec Effect to generate electricity. The Seebeck Effect essentially allows us to create an electric current through a heat difference as charge carriers, both electrons and electron holes will move from hot to cold. So if we have two semiconductors, one would charge charge carriers in the form of electrons and one would charge charge carriers in the form of holes.
A potential difference between the two semiconductors will form when a thermal gradient is applied. This potential difference causes a current to flow in the external circuit These two semiconductors need to be both thermally insulating to ensure that the thermal gradient is maximized, but also electrically conductive to maximize the current. These two material properties are typically linked Copper is both a good conductor of electricity and heat, while iron is a poor one electrical and thermal conductor is a good electrical conductor, and a poor thermal conductor are extremely rare.
For this reason, two unique materials are used for the P-type and the n-type semiconductors, lead telluride for the n-type and an alloy commonly known as tags for the p-type, made of telerinium silver germanium and antimony, now we only need one constant heat source fortunately radioactive substances generate heat during decay the Perseverance rover uses 4.8 kilograms of plutonium dioxide as a heat source this radioactive material mainly produces alpha waves, which are essential because this form of radiation is most efficiently converted into heat in a compact space, while plutonium- 238 also releases minimal beta gamma radiation reduces the weight of the shielding required to protect the electronics on board from these stronger types of ionizing radiation, an essential property for a light spacecraft, the plutonium-238 is also malleable into a ceramic-like material that can be molded into large Chunks instead of evaporating and spreading in the wind during a launch failure, where it could be inhaled or introduced into the food chain. The electricity this device can deliver gradually degrades from its maximum of 110 watts at start-up as its plutonium heart naturally decays and loses half of its energy every 87.9 years, which m. is much longer than the 138 day half-life of the early polonium-210rtg prototypes another benefit of plutonium-238 for this application will be this will power all instruments on board, like the moxie which is one of the new devices I am on I'm most excited about aboard Perseverance Moxie is a new generation oxygen device that will test vital technology for any future human mission to the Meris.
You may be wondering, like me, how does this differ from oxygen generation in the International Space Station, there is obviously a limited one Oxygen supply, why do we need to test this new technology on Mars when we obviously have a proven device? Method for generating oxygen the international space station certainly does not actually recycle oxygen oxygen is produced on the international space station by electrolysis of water, hydrogen and oxygen the hydrogen is then converted with carbon dioxide to water and methane, the methane is then simply released into space during the Water being fed back into the system The international space station requires a regular supply of water as we lose two hydrogen atoms forever. The oxygen molecule we are creating is not a closed system and water is a fairly heavy material that needs to be transported to Mars. The endurance rover will test a new method of generating oxygen with this device that uses solid oxide electrolysis to replace the abundant carbon dioxide in the To split Martian atmosphere into oxygen and carbon monoxide a rotating air is sucked in here at the inlet and while the secondary spiral rotates it captures air and pushes it against the primary stationary spiral.
This continues to happen when the volume between the two spirals along the spiral decreases, leading to leads to an increase in pressure. In this case, it causes the Martian air at variable pressure, which is typically about 100 times lower than Earth's atmosphere and compressed to match Earth's sea level pressure. These types of pumps are lightweight, energy efficient and reliable, making them the perfect air pump for the endurance rover, the pump feeds the carbon dioxide-rich air through a cell stack each stack consists of a catalytic cathode a solid electrolyte and an anode, when air flows over the cathode, which works at 800 degrees Celsius, the carbon dioxide is split into carbon monoxide and oxygen ions according to this reaction, the oxygen ion passes through the solid electrolyte to the anode, where it oxidizes and combines with a second oxygen atom to form gaseous O2, which is then discharged from the anode cavity and tested for purity Moxi can produce 20 grams of oxygen per hour, but the device does not run continuously because it uses too much electricity also needed for another process.
In total, the Moxie system requires 168 watts, which is actually more than the 110 watts that the RTG can deliver to each. At the moment, this process has to be supplemented by two lithium-ion batteries that are included on board to compensate for the low power consumption , which makes it possible to store excess electricity during downtime. This device is exciting as it makes a clear statement that oxygen will be an important resource for any future mission, and this is actually what NASA wants to send a scaled-down prototype of the full-size version with an empty rocket to Marsalong the full-scale version will produce around 2 kg per hour, which will be gradually stored in the waiting rocket over the course of a year and a half, providing life-sustaining air for all future human missions and the oxidant needed for the journey home depends on a future Mars mission to accomplish its purpose, the core sampler is drilled the oddity rover sampling system and shoveled soil into this instrument which stands for sample analysis at marsthe sam is located here on the rover contains several tools that would be in Many earthbound laboratories would have a mass spectrometer, a gas chromatograph and a tunable laser spectrometers, each looking for different signs of life on Mars, endurance has replaced space, this unit adopted a completely new system, the sample caching system, the rover's robotic arm has a core drill that collects cylindrical core samples from the surface of Mars, once the robot head connects to the Drill carousel, where he transfers the drill and the sample tube to a rotating carousel that brings him into the belly of the rover, where another robotic arm is located.
A number of operations are performed here. First, the arm pulls the sample tube out of the drill and takes several pictures of it before and after the sample volume is calculated, and then stores it in one of the 42 slots under the rover's belly, where they remain until the rover caching them in these sample tubes at a certain -Point on the surface of mars there are plans to send another esa-designed rover to mars in 2026 this rover will deliver the samples back to its nasa-designed lander, which will load them into a mars ascension vehicle and the samples Blasting into orbit where a crushing vehicle is waiting for us If this isn't crazy tech, I don't know what is, and we've barely scratched the surface of what this rover is capable of, there's a whole new range of sensors out there on board that do not require perseverance to collect each soil with various forms of electromagnetic radiation to examine thesher the soil beneath them locks The instrument on the robot head uses Roman and luminescence spectroscopy to look for signs of biosignatures that both molecules recognize based on how they interact with UV light. He sits about two inches above the ground, where he focuses his UV laser on the ground and is able to detect chemicals that would indicate the presence of past lives, so the Rover also called an X-ray imaging device called the Pixel that is capable will be to visualize the texture of the soil underneath and look for tiny variations in geology that would suggest that microbial life has changed its environment, while also being able to detect chemical compositions by using fluorescence of the target under electromagnetic x-rays, sensors such as the ground penetrating radar image, located on the rear of the rover, visualize the makeup of the geology up to 10 meters below the surface and possibly even identify water resources buried under a vital resource for human missions .
These are just a few of the sensors on board and of course there are the usual high definition color cameras that will send amazing images back to earth and this time we have built in a microphone so we can hear what our future life on Mars will sound like, maybe even the whirring of helicopter blades in the distance, because by far the most exciting part of this mission is me being the resourceful helicopter, if successful it will be the first time humans demonstrate controlled powered flight on another planet Mars poses many challenges The atmosphere is about one percent the density of Earth, which means less air has to be pushed down to achieve lift to combat the propeller blades that counteract the need for a tail rotor Eliminate must turn much faster than a traditional helicopter blade at around 2400 rpm, which is around five times faster than a helicopter of the same size here on earth, in order to cope with the associated centrifugal forces have a much larger angle of attack than your ordinary blade, so that they can push a larger volume of air downwards, as this helicopter breaks away from stamina. In contrast to the planned dragonfly mission, the rover needs its own power source to attract it. This helicopter will not have its own RTG capability.
It cannot be installed in this tiny two-kilogram helicopter, instead it has these solar modules with six lithium-ion batteries Charging on board and this in turn supplying the motors and cameras on board with power for a maximum flight time of around 90 seconds must approve and design a future flying rover today. February 18, 2021 is a historic day that many others will remember fondly for a long time to come become. I remember exactly where I was and what I was doing when the curious rover landed and I remember seeing this man on my screen, a man who undermined my vision of what an engineer was working on at something so advanced works, should look like Babak Ferdowsi I could see myself landing in his sea putting on the big screens, but in the end I saw the livestream on my phone in a tent that was falling aparti also didn't fit into today's stereotype In the historic landing of curiosity, her younger brother published an interview about Nebel with this man I now somehow call a friend talks about his career his in jpland what it was like to become famous literally overnight.
This interview is now available for free on Nebula , along with a whole host of new original content not available anywhere else, mustard's new original called the Origins of Ta rnung, which describes the fascinating story of the three-part trivia game show f-117 nighthawka by sam von Wendover productions and with yours really, that really shows how distractable and dubious these articles do not convey my personality at all and of course my 9-part logistics of the D-Day series. We are constantly adding more original content and ad-free versions of our YouTube articles and all of that comes bundled with Curiosity Stream for the cheap price of For only 1479 a year, a little over a dollar a month, this is by far the best way to get this channel To support and get in return with all the amazing award winning documentaries on curiosity streams like this fascinating biography of Neilarmstrong's life narrated by Harrison Ford If you are looking for something else, you can check out my previous article about the weird and wonderful NASA's sloping wing aircraft or watch the latest article on the insane biology of ant colonies
The Mars in Scorpio man is possessive and jealous. Some women may appreciate him for being so protective and domineering. He likes to be stimulated both physically and emotionally, but he won't express his feelings towards his lover when out in the world, although he will definitely be exciting and open in private. .
Among all, 10th house is the most auspicious placement in the horoscope. The Mars get exalted in Capricorn zodiac sign and this position in 10th house makes native successful in many areas of the life. .
The Mars transit through your fourth house is dominated by physical activity in the home. Emotional problems could arise, triggered by subconscious memories of past painful experiences. Family problems and disputes may also arise, and this may lead to poor digestion.
It doesn't take much to calm you down again though, with Mars in Leo being particularly easily won over by a bit of flattery and humble pie. Mars in the Air signs (Gemini, Libra and Aquarius) makes for a sophisticated and intellectually savvy fighter whose words can pack a punch just as lethal as any fist.
With Mars in the seventh house of your natal chart, you need a partner who challenges you, and your close personal relationships can be especially passionate, active, or physical.
She was the one who confirmed the landing of the Perseverance rover on Mars on February 18. As soon as the rover landed, scientists and engineers at NASA's mission control in California erupted with joy. Among the scientists who are part of this historic mission is an Indian-American lady. She is Dr Swati Mohan. .
The rover is still operational, and as of July 14, 2021, Curiosity has been active on Mars for 3177 sols (3264 total days; 8 years, 342 days) since its landing (see current status).